Here, basic knowledge of UNIX is briefly summarized.
This is not intended to be used for learning UNIX.
For this purpose, consult an appropriate textbook or information on web pages.
At least, understand the followins.
Coresponding to "Folder" on Windows.
The directory currently in operation is called
"Current Directory", and a file name specified without its
location is assumed to be present in the current directory.
The works done by a computer is called "jobs".
When you type a command such as
it is executed as a foreground job. Until the job is completed,
a prompt will not appear and thus the next commend cannot be issued.
Since a numerical calculation job, such as a Gaussian job, takes some
time for completion, and is usually executed as a background job,
by typing "&" at the end of the command.
Handling Files and Directories
Major file and directory handling commands and their frequently used
options are summarized below.
Before issuing a command, check and understand the details of the options
man command etc.
| ||frequently used options
|Display files and/or directories
|Copy a file or a directory
|Move a file or a directory |
|Remove a file (or a directory)
|Create a directory |
|Remove a directory |
|Change the current directory|
|Print the current directory|
|Include lower directories |
|Prompt before remove or overwrite |
|Do not prompt before remove or overwrite |
ls) Show hidden files
ls) Use detailed format with one line for a file
The letters * and ? are used to specify multiple files in commands above.
Use with sufficient understanding.
Handling background jobs
The completion of a background job will be notified on the terminal
when the terminal used to submit the job is still alive.
Since, from a securiy reason, terminal will be automatically disconnected
when it is not used for a certain period, the status of a
long-time job needs to be checked by a re-login using the command
Examples of major job-handling commands are summarized below.
Examples of Job-Handling Commands
Displays the status of the processors and jobs in a list in read time.
Displays the user's processes including the jobs disconnected from a terminal
) in user-friendly (
) forest (
Kills the job with ID 121212. Since a job of quantum chemical calculation
is often invoked from hierarchical shell scripts, check the hierarchy and ID's of
the jobs carefully, and kill them properly from the upper hierarchy.